Obama arrived in his native Hawaii on December 21 along with his wife Michelle and daughters Sasha, 12, and Malia, 15.
Obama left Honolulu's Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam just before 9pm (0700 GMT Sunday) with his daughters, who likely have school on Monday, but not Michelle.
"As part of her birthday gift from the president, the First Lady will remain in Hawaii to spend time with friends ahead of her upcoming 50th birthday," a brief White House statement said. Michelle Obama's birthday is on January 17.
The president and his family stayed at a rented house near a US Marine Corps base on the northeastern coast of the island of Oahu, located about a dozen miles (20 kilometres) from the state capital Honolulu, where Obama was born.
The president played several rounds of golf at the Marine base with friends and colleagues including White House chef Sam Kass.
On Thursday, he also played golf with New Zealand Prime Minister John Key, a rare vacation encounter with a foreign dignitary.