Singh called up Isro chairman K Radhakrishnan to congratulate him and his team of scientists and extended best wishes for its successful future.
"I congratulate you and your team for this historic achievement," the Prime Minister told Radhakrishnan.
In a message later, Singh said, "I congratulate all scientists of the Indian Space Research Organisation for the successful launch today of the Mars Orbiter mission — the most complex space mission of the country."
"The successful launch is the first step towards a successful mission and is testimony to Isro's mastery of the launch vehicle technology."
He wished the Isro scientists all the best for the "delicate next steps in this ambitious and long mission to Mars which will be the most significant milestone in our space programme and I remain confident that they will do the country proud".
After the Cabinet gave its nod to the Rs 450-crore mission last year, the Prime Minister had said it will be a huge step for India in the area of science and technology.
"Under this mission, our spaceship will go near Mars and collect important scientific information," he had observed.
Information and broadcasting minister Manish Tewari also congratulated scientists who brought Mars Mission to fruition.
"This) underscores distinction, launch power of UPA qua lung power of a section of opposition," he tweeted.